S-100B in Serum and Urine After Traumatic Head Injury in Children

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Background:Children with head trauma are frequently seen in many emergency units. The clinical evaluation of these patients is difficult for a number of reasons and improved diagnostic tools are needed. S-100B, a protein found in glial cells, has previously been shown to be a sensible marker for brain damage after head injury in adults, but few studies have focused on its use in children.Methods:In this study, 111 children with head trauma were included and venous blood and urine samples were taken at arrival (S1 and U1) and 6 hours later (S2 and U2). S-100B levels were analyzed. Clinical and radiologic evaluations were performed according to hospital routine. Two groups were identified—group 1: no computed tomography (CT) scan performed or a CT scan without any sign of trauma-related intracranial pathology (n = 105). Group 2: A CT scan with signs of trauma-related intracranial pathology (n = 6).Results:In group 1, the median (inter quartile range) serum S-100B value in S1-samples was 0.111 μg/L (0.086–0.153), and in group 2, it was 0.282 μg/L (0.195–1.44) (p < 0.01). Also, S2 values significantly differed between the two groups. Urine values were, however, not significantly differing between the groups.Conclusions:Serum S-100B values within 6 hours after head trauma in children were significantly higher in patients with intracranial pathology compared with those without intracranial complications. Identification of these high-risk patients already in the emergency department is of major importance, and we suggest that S-100B could be a valuable diagnostic tool in addition to those used in clinical practice today.

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