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Rates of screening for and treatment of osteoporosis have been low, even among those with fractures who are at greatest risk for new fractures.The objective of this study was to examine trends in the clinical management of patients with fragility fractures to provide baseline data for future assessments of the impact of the new Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measure.The MarketScan Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits (COB) database was used to examine adherence to the 2004 HEDIS guidelines by measuring the percent of women age 67 and older who were screened and/or treated after a fracture from 2000 through 2005. Clinical, demographic, and provider characteristics were assessed to determine the correlates of being screened and treated.The overall unadjusted percent of women screened and treated remains low, with just 10.2% screened and 12.9% treated in 2005. Multivariate analyses, which controlled for fracture location, patient characteristics, physician specialty, and region indicated small, albeit statistically significant, increases in treatment and screening over time. Women fracturing in 2005 were 27% more likely to be screened and 15% more likely to receive treatment relative to those fracturing in the year 2000.Although our study found some improvements in the screening for and treatment of osteoporosis among Medicare beneficiaries with a fragility fracture from 2000 through 2005, the overall percent of women screened and/or treated remained low. These data provide a baseline for assessing the impact of the new HEDIS measure in the coming years.