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THORLAND, WILLIAM G. and THOMAS B. GILLIAM. Comparison of serum lipids between habitually high and low active pre-adolescent males. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 316–321, 1981. Evaluations of 55 pre-adolescent males were made to determine if differences existed in the serum levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios between groups with contrasting levels of body fatness and physical activity habits. Underwater weighing revealed a median body fatness of 13.8% and 5-d physical activity records revealed a median of 3.9 h for daily participation in moderate to very high intensity activities. These values were respectively employed to stratify the sample into groups characterized as “lower fatness” or “higher fatness,” as well as “lower active” or “higher active.” Statistical comparisons between these groups indicated an absence of body fatness effects on any of the serum lipids. However, in contrast to similarities in physical characteristics, body composition, and nutritional intake (except total calories) between the “lower active” and “higher active” groups, physical activity effects were noted for two of the four serum lipid traits. Greater exposure to activities classified as moderate to very highly intense was consistent with lower total triglycerides (52.1 mg/dl vs 68.2 mg/dl) and higher HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios (0.33 vs 0.29) in these 8− to 11-year-old males.