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This study determined the effects of fluid and carbohydrate ingestion on performance, core temperature, and cardiovascular responses during intense exercise lasting 1 h. On four occasions, eight men cycled at 80 ± 1% (±SEM) of O2max for 50 min followed by a performance test. During exercise, they consumed either a large volume (1330 ± 60 ml) of a 6% carbohydrate (79 ± 4 g) solution or water or a small volume (200 ± 10 ml) of a 40% maltodextrin (79 ± 4 g) solution or water. These trials were-pooled so the effects of fluid-replacement (Large FR vs Small FR) and carbohydrate ingestion (CHO vs NO CHO) could be determined. Performance times were 6.5% faster during Large FR than Small FR and 6.3% faster during CHO than NO CHO (P < 0.05). At 50 min, heart rate was 4 ± 1 b-min−1 lower and esophageal temperature was 0.33 ± 0.04°C lower during Large FR than Small FR (P < 0.05) but no differences-occurred between CHO and NO CHO. In summary, Large FR slightly attenuates the increase-in heart rate and core temperature which occurs during Small FR. Both fluid and carbohydrate ingestion equally improve cycling performance and their effects are additive.