The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of high-resistance (HR) and high-velocity (HV) training on the different phases of 100-m sprint performance. Two training groups (HR and HV) were compared with two control groups (RUN and PAS). The HR (N = 22) and HV group (N = 21) trained 3 d.wk-1 for 9 wk: two strength training sessions (HR or HV) and one running session. There was a run control group (RUN, N = 12) that also participated in the running sessions (1 d.wk-1) and a passive control group (PAS, N = 11). Running speed over a 100-m sprint was recorded every 2 m. By means of a principal component analysis on all speed variables, three phases were distinguished: initial acceleration (0–10 m), building-up running speed to a maximum (10–36 m), and maintaining maximum speed in the second part of the run (36–100 m). HV training resulted in improved initial acceleration (P < 0.05 compared with RUN, PAS, and HR), a higher maximum speed (P < 0.05 compared with PAS), and a decreased speed endurance (P < 0.05 compared to RUN and PAS). The HV group improved significantly in total 100 m time (P < 0.05 compared with the RUN and PAS groups). The HR program resulted in an improved initial acceleration phase (P < 0.05 compared with PAS).