|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
HAWLEY, J. A. Effect of increased fat availability on metabolism and exercise capacity. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 9, pp. 1485–1491, 2002. Several procedures have been utilized to elevate plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration and increase fatty acid (FA) delivery to skeletal muscle during exercise. These include fasting, caffeine ingestion, L-carnitine supplementation, ingestion of medium-chain and long-chain triglyceride (LCT) solutions, and intravenous infusion of intralipid emulsions. Studies in which both untrained and well-trained subjects have ingested LCT solutions or received an infusion of intralipid (in combination with an injection of heparin) before exercise have reported significant reductions in whole-body carbohydrate oxidation and decreased muscle glycogen utilization during both moderate and intense dynamic exercise lasting 15–60 min. The effects of increased FA provision on rates of muscle glucose uptake during exercise are, however, equivocal. Despite substantial muscle glycogen sparing (15–48% compared with control), exercise capacity is not systematically improved in the face of increased FA availability.