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JURCA, R., M. J. LAMONTE, T. S. CHURCH, C. P. EARNEST, S. J. FITZGERALD, C. E. BARLOW, A. N. JORDAN, J. B. KAMPERT, and S. N. BLAIR. Associations of Muscle Strength and Aerobic Fitness with Metabolic Syndrome in Men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 1301–1307, 2004.To examine the associations for muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men.Participants were 8570 men (20–75 yr) for whom an age-specific muscular strength score was computed by combining the body weight adjusted one-repetition maximum measures for the leg press and the bench press. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified by age-specific maximal treadmill exercise test time.Separate age and smoking adjusted logistic regression models revealed a graded inverse association for metabolic syndrome prevalence with muscular strength (β = −0.37, P < 0.0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (β = −1.2, P < 0.0001). The association between strength and metabolic syndrome was attenuated (β = −0.08, P < 0.01) when further adjusted for cardiorespiratory fitness. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome was unchanged (β = −1.2, P < 0.0001) after adjusting for strength. Muscular strength added to the protective effect of fitness among men with low (P trend = 0.0002) and moderate (P trend < 0.0001) fitness levels. Among normal weight (BMI < 25), overweight (BMI 25–30), and obese (BMI ≥ 30) men, respectively, being strong and fit was associated with lower odds (73%, 69%, and 62% respectively, P < 0.0001) of having prevalent metabolic syndrome.Muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness have independent and joint inverse associations with metabolic syndrome prevalence.