Explosive Force and Fractionated Reaction Time in Elderly Low- and High-Active Women


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Abstract

Purpose:The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle power, activation time, and neuromuscular stimulation are related to physical activity patterns in older women.Methods:Forty women (65-84 yr) were assigned to high-active (HA) and low-active (LA) groups on the basis of a historical activity questionnaire, and then they performed a series of maximal, voluntary, isometric knee extensions in a visually cued RT task. Fractionated RT measures were taken using three landmarks in the data: the presentation of the visual stimulus, the beginning of the EMG burst, and the initiation of force development. The rate and magnitude of neural stimulation were taken from surface EMG.Results:Peak torque was 15% greater, rate of torque development was 26% greater, motor time was 17% shorter, rate of EMG rise was 25% faster, and onset EMG magnitude was 15% greater in HA than in LA subjects (P < 0.05).Conclusion:These results indicate that older women with a history of vigorous activity can generate greater force, power, and motor output in comparison with their less active peers. The lower-body mass index of the HA subjects and 310% greater volume of physical activity are likely to account for the enhanced neuromuscular function seen. It is plausible that in addition to aging, physical inactivity is responsible for a large portion of the loss of neuromuscular function seen in older adults.

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