Association of Low Aerobic Fitness with Hyperfiltration and Albuminuria in Men

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of low aerobic fitness (AF), a quantitative phenotype primarily modified by physical activity, with the earlier markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Maximum oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), the best index of AF, was estimated in an apparently healthy population of 34,769 adults without known history of diabetes and/or hypertension, and its association with renal function and albuminuria was analyzed retrospectively. V˙O2max was estimated using a cycle ergometer. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate above the age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentile. Albuminuria was detected with dipstick urinalysis on fast morning urine and defined as ≥1+.


V˙O2max levels were negatively correlated with the odds ratios of glomerular hyperfiltration in men (Ptrend = 0.039), not in women. V˙O2max was associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in young men (≤ the median age; Ptrend < 0.001), but not in old men. V˙O2max levels were negatively correlated with the odds ratio of albuminuria in men (Ptrend < 0.001), but not in women. These findings suggest that low AF may be associated with earlier markers of CKD in men. This association was not observed in women.


From the results of this study, it can be concluded that low AF may be a possible independent, modifiable risk factor for CKD in men.

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