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Complex training takes advantage of the phenomenon known as postactivation potentiation (PAP), which is an acute enhancement of jump performance following the heavy resistance exercise (HRE). Numerous of researches have shown fatigue mask the PAP effect in the early stage of recovery and the PAP is an individualized phenomenon. Creatine (Cr) supplementation plays an important role in short term energy metabolism of skeletal muscle.PURPOSE: To examine the effects of Cr supplementation on athletic performance and body composition after 4 weeks of complex training with optimal individual PAP time.METHOD: Thirty two explosive athletes conducted the tests of body composition, counter movement jump (CMJ), 30 m sprint and 1-repetition maximal (1 RM) half squat strength. A matched pair design was used to assign the subjects into creatine group (Cr gr.) or placebo group (Pla gr.) by their maximal muscular strength. Subjects consumed 5 g of Cr or methyl cellulose (Pla gr.) plus 5 g of glucose 4 times per day for 6 days. The 1 RM half squat strength was test again after the supplementation to calculate the weight of HRE in complex training. Meanwhile, subjects ingested 2 g of Cr (or methyl cellulose) plus 2 g of glucose per day till the end of study. Thereafter, complex training (6 sets, 5 RM of half squat and 8 jumps, with optimal individual PAP time for rest) was executed 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Body composition and athletic performance were tested after the training periods.RESULTS: After 4 weeks of training, time for 30 m sprint (Cr gr.: 4.31 ± 0.20 vs. 4.13 ± 0.17 s; Pla gr.: 4.26 ± 0.20 vs. 4.18 ± 0.15 s, p < .05) and 1 RM half squat strength (Cr gr.: 128.43 ±13.75 vs. 180.31 ±17.83 kg; Pla gr.: 127.18 ±17.50 vs. 165.31 ±14.19 kg, p < .05) were significantly improved in both groups. And the strength in Cr gr. was significantly higher than in Pla gr. There were no significant difference in height and peak power of CMJ, body mass, and body fat.CONCLUSION: Cr supplementation improved maximum muscle strength, but no effect on other athletic performance and body composition after 4 weeks of complex training with optimal individual PAP time for rest.Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.