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Although intense endurance and resistance exercise training and whey protein supplementation have both been shown to independently improve glycemic control, no known studies have examined the effect of high-intensity mixed-mode interval training (MMIT) and whey supplementation in adults with Type 2 diabetes (T2D).This study aimed to determine if peritraining whey protein supplementation combined with MMIT can improve glycemic control.In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 24 men (55.7 ± 5.6 yr) with T2D performed MMIT with whey (20 g) or placebo control for 10 wk. Glycemic control was assessed via glucose disposal rate during a euglycemic insulin clamp, fasting blood glucose concentration, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Changes in peak oxygen consumption, 1-repetition maximum strength, vastus lateralis muscle, and subcutaneous adipose thicknesses, and waist circumference were also assessed.Ten weeks of MMIT substantially improved glucose disposal rate by 27.5% (90% confidence interval, 1.2%–60.7%) and 24.8% (−5.4% to 64.8%) in the whey and control groups, respectively. There were likely and possible reductions in fasting blood glucose by −17.4% (−30.6% to −1.6%) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance by −14.1% (−25.3% to 1.08%) in the whey group; however, whey effects were not clearly beneficial to glycemic outcomes relative to the control. MMIT also clearly substantially improved 1-repetition maximum by 20.6% (16.3%–24.9%) and 22.7% (18.4%–27.2%), peak oxygen consumption by 22.6% (12.0%–26.2%) and 18.5% (10.5%–27.4%), and vastus lateralis muscle thickness by 18.9% (12.0%–26.2%) and 18.6% (10.5%–27.4%) and possibly reduced waist circumference by −2.1% (−3.1% to −1.0%) and −1.9% (−3.7% to −0.1%) in the control and whey groups, respectively, but the whey–control outcome was trivial or unclear.A clinically meaningful enhancement in glycemic control after 10 wk of MMIT was not clearly advanced with peritraining whey protein supplementation in middle-age men with T2D.