Differential Clinical Impact of Ascites in Cirrhosis and Idiopathic Portal Hypertension


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Abstract

Cirrhosis and idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) are 2 major diseases showing portal hypertension. However, characteristics and outcomes of IPH with ascites have not yet been determined. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of ascites on the long-term clinical course of IPH.This observational study compared the long-term clinical findings including portal hemodynamics demonstrated by Doppler ultrasonography between 166 cirrhosis (87 males and 79 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 62.5 ± 11.8 years; age range, 20–89 years) and 14 IPH patients (3 males and 11 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 64.2 ± 6.6 years; age range, 51–78 years). Both groups comprised of consecutive patients from November 2007 through February 2013 and were studied retrospectively. The median observation period was 33.4 months for ascites and 34.5 months for survival.Ascites was detected in 60/166 (36.1%) and 116/166 (69.9%) cirrhosis patients and in 7/14 (50%) and 9/14 (64.3%) IPH patients, at baseline and at the end of the observation period, respectively. The cumulative incidence of ascites was 12.3% at 1 year, 35.9% at 3 years, and 59.9% at 5 years in cirrhosis, and 25% at 3 years, and 50% at 5 years in IPH (P = 0.36). Deterioration of ascites in patients showing mild ascites at baseline was found in 32.4% of cirrhosis patients and 42.9% of IPH patients (P = 0.41). Serum creatinine (mg/dl) at baseline was significantly higher in IPH patients who developed ascites (n = 2, 0.74 ± 0.14) than in those who did not (n = 5, 0.526 ± 0.06, P = 0.029). The overall survival rate appeared to favor IPH (100% at 1 year, 92.9% at 3 and 5 years; P = 0.2) more than cirrhosis (87.7% at 1 year, 75.2% at 3 years, and 63.6% at 5 years), but did not reach statistical significance. However, in patients with ascites at baseline, the survival rate was significantly better in IPH (100% at 1, 3, and 5 years, P = 0.04) than in cirrhosis (69.1% at 1 year, 43% at 3 years, 34.4% at 5 years).The presence of ascites at baseline correlated with worse survival rates in patients with cirrhosis as compared to those with IPH as the underlying etiology.

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