Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a postpartum hemorrhagic woman without hypertension: A case report

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), which diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and radiological features, is a neurotoxic disease characterized by a set of clinical manifestations, such as seizure, headache, visual, and/or consciousness disturbance. It is the first case of PRES followed by postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) without underlying disease.

Patient concerns:

A 37-year-old healthy woman had PPH after caesarean section. Six days after delivery, headache occurred suddenly, followed by episodes of clonus seizure.


Brain computed tomography showed ischemic stroke. However, magnetic resonance imaging revealed characteristics consistent with PRES.


The patient received phenytoin for seizure control.


Seizure was under good control over the following days. Three months later, repeated magnetic resonance imaging showed complete remission.


PRES may be triggered by PPH and is not necessarily secondary to typical predisposing factors such as hypertension or pre/eclampsia. Hormone fluctuation, increased blood pressure variation, and massive blood transfusion may be contributed to the development of PRES in our case. Also, it is necessary to rule out those life-threatening diseases, such as cavernoma hemorrhage, cerebral venous thrombosis, and ischemic stroke before the diagnosis of PRES.

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