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This study aims to examine the correlations between lumbar neuromuscular function and pain, lumbar disability in patients with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP).Ninety patients, with ages 18 to 37 years old, with NSLBP were recruited in this study. The lumbar neuromuscular function was tested by the CON-TREX multijoint isokinetic test and training machine. This study uses the visual analog scale (VAS) and Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) to evaluate the pain and the dysfunction index of patients who have low back pain, respectively.Pearson correlation coefficient is used to evaluate the correlation between lumbar neuromuscular function and the VAS and RMDQ scores. VAS and RMDQ scores have correlations with the proprioception in the flexion of the lumbar vertebra flexion; the peak torque of both flexion and extension muscle groups; and average power and endurance at different angular velocities. The decrease of lumbar muscle strength, endurance, and lumbar proprioception of the lumbar vertebra leads to an increase in pain intensity and lumbar disability.This study suggests that patients with chronic low back pain require targeted training in muscle strength, endurance, and lumbar proprioception, providing a theoretical basis for prevention and treatment of chronic NSLBP patients.