Intraoperative neuromonitoring during brain arteriovenous malformation microsurgeries and postoperative dysfunction: A retrospective follow-up study

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To evaluate the effectiveness of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery, we retrospectively analyzed neurologic dysfunction in patients who underwent AVM surgery with (IONM group) and without IONM (non-IONM group). The sensitivity and specificity of short-term neurologic dysfunction were calculated in the IONM group. IONM parameters were obtained in all patients. There was no significant difference in neurologic dysfunction between patients in the IONM and non-IONM groups. The short-term hemiplegia ratio among grade III patients in the IONM group was significantly lower than the non-IONM group. The sensitivity of IONM for predicting short-term neurologic dysfunction in the IONM group was 86.7% with a specificity of 100%. Of the different parameters monitored intraoperatively, the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), and brain auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) may be beneficial in grade III and IV patients. The BAEP complemented the SEP and MEP. Electromyography and the visual-evoked potential have promise in preserving cranial nerve and visual function. For grades I and II patients, no SEP monitoring was safe. For grade V patients, further investigation is required to prevent neurologic dysfunction because of highly related risks for disability and postoperative complications. Moreover, a larger sample size is required to demonstrate the usefulness of IONM during awake craniotomies.

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