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The present genome-wide association study investigated the relationship of interleukin 28B (IL-28B) genetic variants with HBV susceptibility and prognosis of HBV-infected patients. This study aims to examine the role of IL-28B polymorphisms on transplant etiologies and the liver function recovery in Chinese liver transplant recipients.A total of 231 liver transplant recipients were enrolled in the study. The transplant etiologies included progressive HBV hepatitis, HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and non-HBV-related disease. All recipients were in stable condition before transplantation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-28B (rs12979860, rs12980275, rs8099917) of recipients were analyzed by high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis. Liver function, blood cell count, and coagulation function were regularly tested before and for next 5 years after transplantation.No significant association was found between IL-28B gene polymorphisms and transplant etiologies. Peripheral platelet count in the third and fourth days after transplantation were significantly higher in recipients carrying IL-28B rs12979860 T allele, or rs8099917 C allele (P < .016666667), while there were no significant differences between these variants and International Normalized Ratio (INR) levels. In addition, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels in recipients with rs12980275 G allele were higher than those in the wide-type recipients before transplantation (P < .016666667, respectively); nevertheless, no influence of these variants on GGT recovery was observed after transplantation.Genetic variations of IL-28B might impact on liver function recovery by influencing peripheral platelet counts and reducing liver inflammation, but have weak association with transplant etiologies.