Delayed diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a quadriplegic patient with uncontrolled cutaneous fistula: A case report

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Rationale:Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation that is characterized by urinary tract obstruction and invasion of the renal parenchyma. Although rare, XGP can lead to fatal complications, including perinephric inflammation, psoas abscess, and cutaneous fistula.Patient concerns:A quadriplegic patient initially presented to the hospital with a chronic open wound and cutaneous fistula.Diagnoses:Abdominal computed tomography revealed a renal obstructing stone and enlarged right kidney with a perinephric fluid collection that communicated with the cutaneous fistula.Interventions:The patient underwent a right nephrectomy at the department of urology.Outcomes:Two months after surgery, the patient was clinically well with no discharging fistula.Lessons:The XGP accompanied by complications requires an immediate evaluation and early diagnosis. In this case, the diagnosis was delayed because the state of quadriplegia rendered no symptoms of XGP.

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