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Hepatectomy and additional common bile duct exploration are required for the treatment of left-sided hepatolithiasis (LSH).Eligible LSH patients (n = 62) scheduled for open left lateral segmentectomy or left hemihepatectomy with intraoperative biliary exploration via the left hepatic duct orifice (LHD group, n = 35) or the common bile duct (CBD group, n = 27) were retrospectively studied. T-tube insertion was performed on selected patients. Primary outcome measures included overall operative time, length of hospital stay, intraoperative complications, residual stones, and postoperative bile leaks.There were no residual stones observed in the 2 groups. Ten patients in the CBD group received T-tube placement, whereas no patients in the LHD group received T-tube placement. There were more patients in the CBD group suffered intraoperative complications and postoperative bile leakage than LHD group (P < .05). The LHD group had a significantly shorter operative time and hospitalization than the CBD group (P < .05).For left-sided hepatolithiasis patients with a history of biliary tract surgery, LHD cholangioscopy is an accessible technique that simplifies the operation procedure by avoiding choledochotomy and subsequent T-tube insertion, which results in lower complication rates as well as shorter operative duration and length of hospitalization.