Effect of the disease severity on the risk of developing new-onset diabetes after acute pancreatitis

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Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency secondary to acute pancreatitis (AP) drew increasing attention in the recent years. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of pancreatic necrosis and organ failure on the risk of developing new-onset diabetes after AP.The follow-up study was conducted for patients recovered from AP in the treatment center of Jinling Hospital. Endocrine function was evaluated by simplified oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Pancreatic necrosis was examined by abdominal contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scan during hospitalization. The data including APACHE II score, Balthazar's score, organ failure (AKI and ARDS) was also collected from the medical record database. All patients were divided into group diabetes mellitus (DM) and group non-DM according to the endocrine function and group pancreatic necrosis (PN) and persistent organ failure (OF), group PN and non-OF, group non-PN and OF, and group non-PN and non-OF according to the occurrence of pancreatic necrosis and persistent organ failure.Around 256 patients were included for the final analysis. 154 patients (60.2%) were diagnosed with DM (include impaired glucose tolerance, IGT), while 102 patients (39.8%) were deemed as normal endocrine function. APACHE II score and Balthazar score of the patients in the group DM were significant higher than those in the non-DM group (F = 6.09, P = .01; F = 10.74, P = .001). The incidence of pancreatic necrosis in group DM and group non-DM was, respectively, 64.7% and 53.0% (χ2 = 3.506, P = .06). The patients underwent necrosis debridement by percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) and/or the operative necrosectomy (ON) were more likely to developed new onset DM than the patients without PCD or ON (χ2 = 2.385, P = .02). The morbidity of new-onset DM after AP gradually increased from group non-PN and non-OF, group non-PN and OF, group PN and non-OF to group PN and OF in order (χ2 = 4.587, P = .03). The value of HOMA-IR of patients at follow-up time was significant higher in group DM than group non-DM (F = 13.414, P = .000).Patients with both PN and persistent OF may were at increased risk of developing new-onset diabetes after AP. Insulin resistance could be the pivotal mechanism of the development of diabetes.

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