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The objective of this study is to determine whether the cross sectional area (CSA) measurement of the median nerve at the wrist differ between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in diabetic patients with and without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN).This study included 44 patients with type II diabete millitus (DM) with CTS, 32 patients with CTS and DPN, 46 patients with idiopathic CTS, and 42 healthy subjects. Ultrasonographic measurement of the CSA of the median nerve was made at the level of the wrist, together with nerve conduction studies.The median CSA at the wrist was significantly larger in all patient groups compared with healthy subjects. The median nerve CSA was significantly larger in diabetic patients with CTS than patients with idiopathic CTS. The median nerve CSA at wrist was significantly smaller in patients with CTS and DPN compared with diabetic patients with CTS only.The median nerve CSA at the wrist was larger in diabetic patients with CTS than patients with idiopathic CTS and CTS with DPN. Median nerve CSA can help to differentiate between diabetic patients with CTS with and without DPN.