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Pancreatic lipidosis (nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease, NAFPD) causes insulin resistance and dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells, with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the prevalence and pathogenic factors associated with NAFPD are not clear. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of NAFPD in a Chinese adult population, and investigate factors associated with NAFPD aggravation.This was a cross-sectional study; 4419 subjects were enrolled for NAFPD screening and were divided into NAFPD (n = 488) and without NAFPD (n = 3930) groups. The sex, age, related concomitant diseases, general physical parameters, and serum glucose and lipid metabolism were compared between the 2 groups.The overall NAFPD prevalence was 11.05%, but increased with age. In those <55 years NAFPD prevalence was lower in females than males (P < .05), but prevalence was similar >55 years. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), T2DM, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, adiponectin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were the independent risk factors for NAFPD (P < .05). Analaysis of mild NAFPD (MN) and severe NAFPD (SN) subgroups, according to the extent of fat deposition, suggested that NAFLD, triglyceride, lipoprotein, and adiponectin were independent risk factors for NAFPD aggravation (P < .05).The NAFPD prevalence was about 11% in Chinese adults. Its development and progression was related to NAFLD, T2DM, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and GLP-1 levels. Severe NAFPD was associated with NAFLD and dyslipidemia.