MicroRNs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate the expression of protein-coding genes at the post-transcription level and their dysregulated expression has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Circulating miRNAs have been widely recommended as potential biomarkers for many diseases including coronary artery disease. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of 6 normal coronary artery (NCA), 12 patients with coronary artery disease including 6 unstable angina (UA) patients and 6 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients were determined by small RNA sequencing. The differential expression of miRNAs was verified via using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We further performed bioinformatics analysis for the differentially expressed miRNAs. The results showed that 60 miRNAs were up-regulated and 26 miRNAs were down-regulated in the UA group and 49 miRNAs were up-regulated and 62 miRNAs were down-regulated in the UA group when compared with the NCA group. Among them, both of UA group and STEMI group shared 38 dysregulated miRNAs (28 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated) versus NCA group. ROC curves analysis showed that miR-142-3p and miR-17-5p might server as potential biomarkers for the detection and diagnosis of UA and STEMI. Bioinformatics functional predictions showed that the differential expressed miRNAs were closely related with the pathological process of coronary artery disease. We comprehensively analyzed profile expression of circulating miRNAs of patients with coronary artery disease. Our study suggested that miR-142-3p and miR-17-5p might be potential targets for follow-up research in evaluating biomarkers of coronary artery disease.