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Surgical removal of a giant mediastinal lipoma or liposarcoma involving both chest cavities is always challenging.We present 2 cases of giant mediastinal tumor, one of which was a 22-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital due to a mild dyspnea after running. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a large mass with low density occupying the entire right hemithorax and extending anteriorly into the left. The other patient was a 43-year-old male, who was presented to the hospital with complaints of gradually progressive dyspnea. CT scan revealed a mass comprised of fat density with areas of soft-tissue density in-between, involving in both chest cavities, draping around the heart and great vessels.Both of the patients receive complete resection through a standard median sternotomy.Histologic examination revealed lipoma for the first patient, and well differentiated liposarcoma for the second.Both of their symptoms were improved after surgery and the postoperative courses were good.Our experience indicated that complete surgical removal through a standard median sternotomy is a safe and efficient approach for the treatment of giant mediastinal lipoma and liposarcoma.