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This study aims to investigate major complications or symptoms of pregnant women, causes of maternal near-miss, and issues that are relevant to severe maternal disease.A retrospective analysis was performed in the “maternal individual investigation form,” which included all critical maternity patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 1, 2012 to September 31, 2015.A total of 14,014 pregnant patients who delivered at 28 to 42 weeks of gestation were included. Eight thousand eighty-six patients experienced complications or symptoms, and top 7 of these were postpartum hemorrhage, hypertension during pregnancy, diabetes, anemia, hepatopathy, nephroma, and connective tissue disease, of which the morbidity were 11.92%, 10.15%, 9.34%, 8.57%, 3.13%. 0.56%, and 0.55%, respectively. Delivery times, gestational weeks, and informal pregnancy examinations had significant correlation with maternal near-miss (P < .05); nevertheless, the age at pregnancy, number of pregnancies, and education were not so significant (P > .05). Two hundred sixty-five patients had severe maternal diseases (maternal near miss), and the top 5 causes for severe maternal morbidity were massive blood transfusion, thrombocytopenia, clinical feature of shock, uterus removal induced by uterus infection or bleeding, and coagulation dysfunction, of which the morbidity were 24.15%, 18.87%, 13.58%, 9.43%, and 6.79%, respectively.Delivery times, gestational weeks, and informal pregnancy examinations should be considered in maternal near miss patients. Moreover, hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatopathy, and cardiopathy were the principal causes of maternal near miss. Therefore, the monitoring of these principal causes of severe maternity near miss is important for reducing the maternal morbidity and mortality.