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The objectives are to evaluate the application of computed tomography venography (CTV) in the diagnosis of iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), and to assess the factors related to the incidence and development of IVCS and the recurrence of varicose veins.Imaging data of 120 patients with chronic venous disease (CVD) of the lower extremity and 68 subjects without CVD (control) were retrospectively reviewed by radiologists blinded to the groups. CTV, conventional venography, and Doppler ultrasound were compared in the diagnosis and contributing factors for IVCS were also analyzed.CTV required less procedure time than venography or color ultrasonography (P < .001). The rate of iliac venous compression diagnosed by CTV was higher in the CVD group (53.3%) than in the control group (22.1%) (χ2 = 17.425, P< .001). Risk factors for IVCS included gender, hyperlipidemia, and course of disease (P < .05). Development of femoral vein collateral was more common in patients with IVCS (P < .05). The duration of disease was positively associated with the severity of iliac vein compression (r = 0.321, P < .001). IVCS was an important contributing factor for varicose vein recurrence (51.2%). In patients with IVCS and venous ulcer (C5-C6), the healing time of the ulcer treated with stent was significantly shorter compared with those without stent treatment (P < .001).CTV is accurate for the diagnosis and severity evaluation of IVCS. IVCS might be a contributing factor for varicose vein recurrence. Iliac vein stent implantation as a safe and effective interventional therapy promotes the healing of venous ulcer caused by IVCS.