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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to relieve postoperative fever, surgery pain, and inflammation. In addition, NSAIDs have anticancer activity and may reduce the risk and mortality of several cancers. However, the association between postoperative NSAIDs and the clinical outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with fever after surgery is not fully understood. We performed a retrospective study of NSCLC patients who underwent surgery between July 2011 and June 2012, aiming to evaluate the effect of postoperative NSAIDs on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Differences in clinical data between the postoperative NSAIDs group and non-NSAIDs groups were analyzed by Chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier curves method and Cox regression analysis were conducted for survival analysis. The primary and secondary endpoints were OS and PFS, respectively. This retrospective study included 347 NSCLC patients. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the NSAIDs group and non-NSAIDs group except for age (P = .024) and differential degree (P = .040). Administration of postoperative NSAIDs was related to longer OS (hazards ratio [HR] 0.528, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.278–0.884, P = .006) and longer PFS (HR 0.557, 95% CI 0.317–0.841, P = .002) in the multivariate Cox regression model. Subgroup analysis showed statistically significant differences in elderly individuals, male subjects, low smoking index, poor differentiation, and non-adenocarcinoma subgroups, respectively. In conclusion, the administration of postoperative NSAIDs was related to longer OS and PFS in NSCLC patients with postoperative fever.