Case report: Takayasu arteritis in a 3-month-old Chinese girl

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Rationale:Takayasu arteritis is a rare large vessel systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its main branches in women of childbearing age. Due to nonspecific symptoms during the acute phase of disease, early diagnosis is still a challenge for pediatricians.Patient concerns:We reported a 3-month-old girl who presented with sustained elevated levels of acutephase reactants, which could not be explained by infectious diseases and malignant diseases.Diagnoses:The patient's angiography showed dilatation, stenosis, and inflammation of the aorta and its branches and was diagnosed as Takayasu arteritis.Interventions:We prescribed glucocorticoids combined with immunosuppressive agents, which include cyclophosphamide used as an induction drug for 6 months, and mycophenolate mofetil used as a maintenance drug. Glucocorticoids gradually stopped.Outcomes:At present, the girl went into clinical remission with normal levels of acute-phase reactants and improvement of vascular inflammation demonstrated by angiography.Lessons:This case report illustrates that Takayasu arteritis can occur in children at a very early age after birth before apparent clinical symptoms.

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