The ratio of urinary sodium and potassium and chronic kidney disease progression: Results from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD)

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The Na/K ratio in urine stands for the dietary of sodium and potassium intake in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear for the renal progression. We aimed to determine the risk of progression of chronic kidney disease based on the Na/K ratio in a 24-hour urine collection.We determined the association between the progression of renal disease and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium (Na/K) ratios in 2238 patients over a 5-year timespan using data obtained from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Renal events were defined as a 50% decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below baseline, or the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients were divided into 4 groups based on the quartile range of the 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium ratio. We analyzed those variables in the 4 groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using the data of 1001 patients to identify the independent factors associated with renal events.Age and male sex accounted for the greatest number of patients in the group with the highest values (group 4) of the 24-hour urinary Na/K ratio (≥3.85). There was no difference in the prevalence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, the ratio of use of antihypertensive drugs, blood pressures, or estimated GFRs. In the group with the highest urinary Na/K ratio, the 24-hour urinary Na concentration mean ± standard deviation was 188.7 ± 70.6 mmol and that of urinary K was 39.9 ± 16.1 mmol. The urinary protein excretion was highest in the group with the highest urinary Na/K ratio. In the logistic regression analysis, the effect on renal events increased with increasing urinary Na/K ratios. After adjusting for other factors, the risk of renal events was 2.48 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–4.90) in group 3, and 3.75 (95% CI: 1.35–11.27) in group 4. In the Kaplan–Meier analysis, the higher the urinary Na/K ratio, the higher the rate of CKD progression.Based on our analyses, we concluded that the higher the urinary Na/K ratio, the greater the risk of CKD progression.

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