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High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a precancerous lesion of cervical cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of high-grade CIN and to determine if the specific genotype of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a predictor of recurrent high-grade CIN. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 172 patients with CIN 2+ underwent cold knife conization or a loop electrosurgical excision. The HPV DNA chip was used to detect HPV. Recurrent lesions were histologically confirmed and considered to be recurrence of CIN2+. We compared the recurrence rate in patients who did and did not have HPV infection after treatment. One hundred forty-eight (86%) patients had HPV infection before treatment. The first follow-up HPV test was performed on average 4.6 months after treatment and the recurrence rate for high-grade CIN was 3.5%. Fifty-eight patients (33.7%) were found to have HPV infection after treatment; of these, 14 (24.1%) had HPV genotype 16 and/or 18. Eleven patients had persistent HPV16 and/or 18 infection and 3 had new HPV 16 infection after treatment (78.6% and 21.4%, P = .001); the HPV 16 genotype was significantly correlated with recurrent disease and persistent infection after treatment (P = .013 and P = .054, respectively, [OR], 19.4; 95% [CI], 1.89–198.79). Recurrence of high-grade CIN was related to HPV infection after treatment, and persistent HPV16 infection was the most important factor for recurrence. Therefore, HPV vaccination for the HPV16 genotype and regular follow-up with HPV testing after treatment may be useful for preventing recurrent high-grade CIN.