Sinonasal hemangiopericytoma caused hypophosphatemic osteomalacia: A case report

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Rationale:Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare, paraneoplastic syndrome featured with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors and sometimes by malignancies. TIO diagnosis and treatment is often delayed because TIO usually has nonspecific generalized bone pain and weakness, and location of TIO tumor is quite challenging. Very few TIO caused by sinonasal hemangiopericytoma have been reported in the literature.Patient concerns:A 40-year-old Chinese woman presented with diffuse bone pain for more than 1 year. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, hypocalcemia, an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level and bone-specific ALP level. Imaging studies revealed low bone mineral density (BMD) and multiple pseudofractures at the ribs. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was negative in searching for tumors. Because no tumor was located, the patient was treated with oral phosphate, calcium, and alfacalcidol, and achieved great relief in her symptoms and improvement in BMD. Six years later, the patient had breast cancer surgery and received chemotherapy, and still had hypophosphatemia. During this time, nasopharyngo-fiberscope showed nasal mass in her left nasal cavity. Then she had her nasal polyps removed and surprisingly the serum phosphate became normal.Diagnoses and interventions:The patient had the nasal mass resected, and pathological diagnosis of the nasal mass was sinonasal hemangiopericytoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for FGF23. Thus the final diagnosis was osteomalacia induced by sinonasal hemangiopericytoma. Phosphate supplementation and alfacalcidol were discontinued.Outcomes:The patient had normal serum phosphate after 6-month follow-up.Lessons:By presenting this case, we hope to remind clinicians that in patients with osteomalacia with undetermined reason and intranasal polypoid mass, sinonasal hemangiopericytoma should be suspected.

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