Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a patient with T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A case report

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Rationale:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an important treatment for hematological malignancies. Common complications are opportunistic infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common causes of opportunistic infections.Patient concerns:A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with T-cell lymphoma after persistent cough and lymphadenopathy. Fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, rash, and dyspnea occurred after HSCT.Diagnosis:The young man developed severe CMV infection with CMV detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gastrointestinal tract.Interventions:Intravenous ganciclovir and high-dose glucocorticoids were administered after the patient was diagnosed with CMV pneumonia and enteritis.Outcomes:After 3 weeks, the young man died from respiratory failure and infectious toxic shock caused by severe CMV infection.Lessons:Patients after HSCT should be closely monitored CMV-DNA in blood and other specimen, and treated first if necessary, so as to avoid the occurrence of severe infections such as CMV gastroenteritis and pneumonia.

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