Sensitivity of contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography for the detection of residual shunts after percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure

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The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography (c-TTE) versus transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to detect a residual right-to-left shunt (RLS) following a transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure.A self-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. 57 patients with PFO who had experienced migraines underwent percutaneous PFO closure. c-TTE, TEE, and contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) at resting and Valsalva maneuver were performed during the 3-month follow-up after the closure.The closure devices were successfully implanted in all patients without complications. Three months after closure, TEE did not detect residual Valsalva shunts in any of the 57 patients; residual valsalva shunts were found via c-TTE in 15 of the 57 patients and were also observed via c-TCD. When c-TTE and/or c-TCD were used, the rate of residual RLSs detected in patients who underwent PFO closure was 26.32%, which was significantly different than the rate detected using TEE (P < .05)c-TTE and c-TCD showed equivalent sensitivity in evaluating transcatheter closure of a PFO. c-TTE could be a more cost-effective and reliable method to detect the residual shunt after PFO closure.

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