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Recent studies have confirmed the efficacy of sorafenib for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma; however, its efficacy and safety as an adjuvant therapy in patients with non-metastatic and loco-regional renal cell carcinoma after surgery remains controversial. Thus, the aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant sorafenib therapy in such patients from 8 centers in northwestern China that were treated from August 2009 to December 2016.After surgery, the patients (n = 48) received oral sorafenib for 3 months. The control group (n = 48) comprised patients that underwent the same surgery from December 2009 to June 2016 but without adjuvant therapy who were matched 1:1 with the sorafenib group with respect to sex, age, pathological findings, disease stage and grade, operation time, and surgical procedure. The primary outcome compared between the groups was disease-free survival. Adverse events were also recorded to evaluate the safety of sorafenib. The influence of patients’ characteristics and laboratory tests on recurrence was analyzed using unconditional logistic regression.Overall, the demographic characteristics of the 2 groups were similar. There was no significant difference in the rate of recurrence (8.3% for sorafenib patients and 6.2% for the matched patients, P = .66) or median disease-free survival between the 2 groups (hazard ratio = 1.561, 95% confidence interval = 0.349–6.987, P = .56). In multiple logistic regression analysis, increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) emerged as an independent predictor of recurrence risk (P = .02).These results indicate that postoperative sorafenib adjuvant therapy did not achieve the expected beneficial effect, pointing to the need for further studies to evaluate its utility in such cases.