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Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by hantaviruses (HVs). Climate factors have a significant impact on the transmission of HFRS. Here, we characterized the dynamic temporal trend of HFRS and identified the roles of climate factors in its transmission in Changchun, China.Surveillance data of HFRS cases and data on related environmental variables from 2013 to 2017 were collected. A principal components regression (PCR) model was used to quantify the relationship between climate factors and transmission of HFRS.During 2013 to 2017, a distinctly declining temporal trend of annual HFRS incidence was identified. Four principal components were extracted, with a cumulative contribution rate of 89.282%. The association between HFRS epidemics and climate factors was better explained by the PCR model (F = 10.050, P <.001, adjusted R2 = 0.456) than by the general multiple regression model (F = 2.748, P <.005, adjusted R2 = 0.397).The monthly trends of HFRS were positively correlated with the mean wind velocity but negatively correlated with the mean temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, and accumulative precipitation of the different previous months. The study results may be useful for the development of HFRS preventive initiatives that are customized for Changchun regarding specific climate environments.