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Ten years ago, endoscopic techniques began to prevail in clinical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but to date, few studies have reported the clinical efficacy of percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) in treating adolescent LDH. This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of PTED in treating adolescent patients with LDH.Between June 2012 and June 2016, retrospective analysis of 43 adolescent patients diagnosed with single-segment LDH at spine surgery at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University. The patients’ lower limb pain was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The VAS is the most commonly-used quantitative method for assessing the degree of pain in clinical practice. The measurement method is to draw a 10 cm horizontal line on a piece of paper, 1 end of which is 0, indicating no pain, while the other end is 10, which means severe pain, and the middle part indicates different degrees of pain. The clinician then asks the patient to make a mark on the line to indicate the degree of pain based on how he or she feels. The ODI is the most widely-used assessment method internationally for lumbar or leg pain at present. The ODI questionnaire is composed of 10 questions, covering pain intensity, independent living, carrying, walking, sitting, standing, sleep, travel, sex, and social life. Every category comprises 6 options, with the highest score for each question being 5 points. Thus the 1st option is worth 0 points, the last option scores 5 points, and higher scores represent more serious dysfunction. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the modified MacNab score. Clinical outcomes were measured preoperatively, and at 3 days, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively.All 43 patients were followed up for 12 to 24 months. The average follow-up time was 18.33 months. The VAS scores and ODI scores at 3 days, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively were significantly lower than before surgery. The difference was statistically significant (P < .001). The differences in VAS scores and ODI scores at 3 days, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery were also statistically significant (P < .001). According to the modified MacNab criteria, 26 cases were rated excellent, 14 cases were good, and 3 cases were acceptable at the final follow-up, and 93.02% of these patients had excellent outcomes.The PTED is an effective and safe surgical method for the treatment of adolescent patients with LDH, but high-quality randomized controlled trials are still required to further verify these findings.