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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) and small dense low-density lipoprptein (sdLDL) in diabetic and non-diabetic participants in a community-dwelling cohort.The plasma levels of PCSK9 and sdLDL were detected in 1766 participants (median age: 61.40 years; 733 males vs 1033 females; 383 diabetic vs 1383 non-diabetic patients) from the Pingguoyuan community of Beijing, China.Results showed that Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between PCSK9 and sdLDL (r = 0.263, P < .001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation between plasma PCSK9 and sdLDL in the whole population study. sdLDL was used as the dependent variable, and the potential cofounders were adjusted. However, any independent relationship was not observed between circulating PCSK9 and sdLDL in the diabetic subpopulation (r = 0.269, P < .05, β = 9.591, P > .05).Thus, there is a positive correlation between plasma PCSK9 and sdLDL in a community-dwelling cohort, but not in type 2 diabetic subpopulation, after confounder adjustment.