Endovascular treatment of a ruptured thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to Pott disease during a spine surgery: A case report and a literature review

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Rationale:The coexistence of a tuberculous aortic pseudoaneurysm and Pott disease in patients with a history of tuberculosis (TB) is relatively rare, and the treatment strategies remain still controversial.Patient concerns:A 57-year-old female patient with a history of primary pulmonary TB presented with symptoms of breathlessness, chest pain, weight loss, and fever. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) showed a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to Pott disease at T11/12 level.Diagnoses:Tuberculous pseudoaneurysm at the descending thoracic aorta associated with tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis.Interventions:We originally planned a combined surgery consisting of posterior spine stabilization, anterior excision of the infected field, and aortic reconstruction. When we surgically stabilized the posterior spine, unexpectedly, the pseudoaneurysm ruptured. Immediately, we terminated the surgery and appropriately placed an endovascular stent graft, which successfully rescued the patient.Outcomes:When the patient's conditions were stable, we anteriorly debrided all infected tissues and then performed a spinal fusion by grafting autologous iliac bone. After the debridement and spinal fusion, we arranged a 1-year anti-tuberculous chemotherapy for this patient and performed a 24-month follow-up. This patient had no signs of recurrent infection during the follow-up.Lessons:For the patients with tuberculous aortic aneurysm(s) complicated with vertebral osteomyelitis, the endovascular repair of an aneurysm(s) should be considered a conventional therapy before the spine surgery, lowering the risk of aortic aneurysm rupture. Meanwhile, minimally invasive endovascular stent graft combined with anti-tuberculosis drugs may be considered one of the therapeutic regimens for the patients whose conditions are not suitable for open surgery, such as age, weakness, or severe organ failure.

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