Relationship between esophageal motility and severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease according to the Los Angeles classification

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The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) according to the Los Angeles (LA) classification and esophageal motility using high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring.We examined 124 patients with GERD from January 2016 to June 2018. The LA classification of each patient was determined by endoscopy. HRM was performed by the intraluminal water infusion method. HRM and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring parameters of the patients were studied and statistically compared.On HRM examination, GERD symptoms were found to be associated with worsened distal contractile integral (DCI), ineffective esophageal motility (IEM), peristalsis break (PB), lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, and the 4-second integrated relaxation pressure (IRP4s) of LES pressure along with the grade of LA classification, especially in patients having grade C and D GERD who had transverse mucosal breaks. The 24-hour pH monitoring study revealed that patients classified as having grade C or D GERD had an esophageal pH < 4.0 for a longer time than those with grade O, A, or B GERD. Similar results were found regarding the duration of the longest reflux event, the number of reflux episodes longer than 5 minutes, and the number of reflux episodes. Patients with higher grade esophagitis had higher De Meester scores, which suggested greater esophageal acid exposure. Hiatal hernia (HH) was more closely related to LES pressure, IRP4s, and acid exposure, whereas DCI, IEM, and PB were not statistically different between patients with GERD with and without HH.Patients with severe esophagitis may have motor dysfunction not only in the LES but also in the esophageal body, with resulting increased esophageal acid exposure, which causes esophagitis. Low LES pressure might be the main reason that patients with HH develop esophagitis. GERD without HH may be due to a variety of motor dysfunctions.

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