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To evaluate the outcomes and complications of intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in patients during pars plana vitrectomy for treatment of diabetic vitreous hemorrhage. This retrospective, observational, comparative study included 103 patients (103 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for treatment of diabetic vitreous hemorrhage. Sixty-six patients received an intravitreal injection of 0.05 mg (0.05 cc) of ranibizumab at the end of surgery. Main outcome measures were the occurrence of recurrent early vitreous hemorrhage, reoperation, intraocular pressure, best corrected visual acuity. Mean follow-up time was 6 months. The rate of rebleeding in the intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) group was 6.1% (4 eyes), which is significantly lower than the control group (24.3%, 9 eyes, P < .01). The incidence of postoperative diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (PDVH) was significantly lower in the IVR group than the control group, OR=0.26, 95% CI= (0.06, 0.95). Visual acuity 6 months after operation was better in IVR group (P<.01) There was no difference in mean intraocular pressure between the 2 groups (P=.56). The present clinical study suggests that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab is effective in the prevention of postoperative diabetic vitreous hemorrhage in eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of diabetic vitreous hemorrhage.