Effects of Nurse-Managed Telemonitoring on Blood Pressure at 12-Month Follow-Up Among Urban African Americans

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Abstract

Background:

Nearly one in three adults in the United States has hypertension. Hypertension is one of the largest risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and it is growing in prevalence, especially among African Americans.

Objectives:

To test the hypothesis that individuals who participate in usual care (UC) plus blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (TM) will have a greater reduction in BP from baseline to 12-month follow-up than would individuals who receive UC only.

Methods:

A two-group, experimental, longitudinal design with block stratified randomization for antihypertensive medication use was used. African Americans with hypertension were recruited through free BP screenings offered in the community. Data were collected through a structured interview and brief physical exam. Cross tabs, repeated measures analysis of variance, and independent t tests were used to analyze the study's hypothesis.

Results:

The TM intervention group had a greater reduction in systolic BP (13.0 mm Hg) than the enhanced UC group (7.5 mm Hg; t = −2.09, p = .04) from baseline to the 12-month follow-up. Although the TM intervention group had a greater reduction in diastolic BP (6.3 mm Hg) compared with the enhanced UC group (4.1 mm Hg), the differences were not statistically significant (t = −1.56, p = .12).

Discussion:

Telemonitoring of BP resulted in clinically and statistically significant reductions in systolic BP over a 12-month period; if maintained over a longer period of time, the reductions could improve care and outcomes significantly for African Americans with hypertension.

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