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This study aimed to evaluate the difference and consistency between single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and MRI in diagnosing osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) and identifying active lesions.All 46 patients underwent SPECT-CT and MRI examinations. The pain vertebral body and pain sites were determined using both MRI and SPECT-CT during percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). The differences before and after treatment were assessed using visual analog scale scores and evaluated using a paired t-test. Furthermore, the difference and conformity of SPECT-CT and MRI in diagnosing OVCFs were determined using the McNemar test and the κ-statistic, and by calculating the accuracy index of SPECT-CT diagnosis.Among all 46 patients, MRI showed 79 segments that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for fresh OVCFs, whereas SPECT-CT showed 83 segments, and a total of 77 affected vertebral bodies were treated with PKP. Paired t-test evaluation showed that PKP was effective, suggesting that the affected sites were determined accurately (P<0.05). Furthermore, the κ-statistics indicated that these two methods were highly consistent (P<0.05) and the McNemar test indicated that the efficacy of these two diagnostic methods was closely correlated (P>0.05). In different stages of fractures, especially the acute phase, the consistency of SPECT-CT and MRI in the diagnosis of fresh OVCFs was high.SPECT-CT is the preferred method for imaging diagnosis when patients with suspected OVCFs have contraindications to MRI, particularly for patients with acute fractures.