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One of the most promising imaging techniques in primary hyperparathyroidism is PET/CT with choline-based tracers. To investigate the current evidence of these tracers in localizing parathyroid adenoma, a systematic review was performed. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and eligible studies were analyzed. Data were extracted, the level of evidence was scored, and performance data were pooled to calculate the weighted detection rate. Eleven articles were included in this study. The pooled detection rate was 97 and 94% on per patient-based and per lesion-based analysis, respectively. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies and the level of evidence was determined to be 3a-, following Oxford criteria. Choline PET/CT has shown favorable results in detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue and may replace conventional technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in preoperative planning of parathyroid surgery. However, the quality of current evidence is moderate, and additional high-quality studies are needed to confirm these numbers.