Future Directions in Non-Invasive Measurements of Tear Film Surface Kinetics

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To review the methods for dynamic, non-invasive, and objective assessment of tear film surface quality and to outline their current state-of-the-art and their future potential.


Among the methods available, high-speed videokeratoscopy, lateral shearing interferometry, and dynamic wavefront sensing are being considered.


The principles of operations, their advantages and disadvantages, and limitations of each method are being outlined. The possible future directions of each method are also discussed.


To gain a better understanding of tear film, its structure and function, it is essential to combine macroimaging technologies with those focusing on tear film microstructure. In this way, one can envisage a clinical device that could help, in future, early diagnosis of dry eye syndrome and development of better materials for contact lenses and eye lubricants.

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