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Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modification-mediated changes in pain-related gene expressions play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, is involved in the development of chronic pain. Moreover, SIRT1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But the role of SIRT1 in T2DM-induced neuropathic pain remains unknown. In this study, we found that spinal SIRT1 expression and activity were downregulated significantly in high-fat-fed/low-dose streptozotocin-induced neuropathic pain rats. SIRT1 localized in spinal neurons but not in astrocytes or microglia. Furthermore, the expressions of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) and mGluR5, which play a key role in central sensitization and neuropathic pain, and H3 acetylation levels at Grm1/5 (encoding mGluR1/5) promoter regions were increased in diabetic neuropathic pain rats. SIRT1 activator SRT1720 reversed thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and spinal neuronal activation in diabetic neuropathic pain rats. Concurrently, increased expressions of mGluR1/5 and H3 acetylation levels at Grm1/5 promoter regions were reversed by SIRT1 activation. In addition, knockdown of SIRT1 by Ad-SIRT1-shRNA induced pain behaviors and spinal neuronal activation in normal rats, which was accompanied by the increased expressions of mGluR1/5 and H3 acetylation levels at Grm1/5 promoter regions. Therefore, we concluded that SIRT1-mediated epigenetic regulation of mGluR1/5 expressions was involved in the development of neuropathic pain in type 2 diabetic rats.