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Melioidosis, caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, occurs in tropical areas and is diagnosed mostly in adults. In Khon Kaen, a province of northeast Thailand, five cases of infantile melioidosis were managed at Srinagarind Hospital. The patient's specimens were submitted to microbiologie and serologic examination for P. pseudomallei demonstrated by indirect hemagglutination. Possible modes of transmission such as environment, perinatal exposure and venereal transmission were investigated.