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In a prospective study aimed at determining the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children nasopharyngeal cultures and paired serum samples were obtained from 336 consecutive children ages 6 weeks to 15 years with pneumonia, 167 hospitalized and 169 outpatients. Results regarding Haemophilus influenzae are reported here. Blood cultures obtained from 127 of the hospitalized patients did not yield growth of H. influenzae. H. influenzae was isolated from the nasopharynx of 88 children. Seventy-three strains were noncapsulated, 2 were type b, 2 were type f and 11 were not serotyped. Paired serum samples were available.