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We compared the serologic response of 46 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents and 61 age-matched controls to standard trivalent inactivated influenza vaceine (A/Taiwan (H1N1), A/Shanghai (H3N2), B/Yamagata). Children were immunized according to the package insert recommendations before the 1990 to 1991 influenza season. Serum antibody titers to influenza A were determined before and 1 month after each vaccination and compared for study and control subjects. Serologic responses of HIV-infected participants were correlated with absolute CD4 counts and stage of HIV disease. Regardless of age or HIV status, all groups responded with significant increases in antibody to the influenea A strains (range, 2.1-fold to 11.8-fold), with the exception that antibody to H3N2 rose only 1.5-fold (P = 0.058) among HIV-positive subjects ≥9 years old. Pre- and postimmunization antibody titers were significantly higher for controls than for HIV-positive subjects. There was no correlation between serologic responses and CD4 counts among HIV-infected subjects, but those with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome responded significantly less well to vaccine. We conclude that HIV-infected children and adolescents produce significant antibody rises after inactivated influenza A vaccination but that their absolute antibody concentrations are lower than those seen in agematched controls.