Effect of transplacentally acquired tetanus antibodies on the antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate and tetanus toxoid vaccines in Filipino infants


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Abstract

Background.Pregnant women in developing countries are vaccinated with tetanus toxoid (TT) to prevent neonatal tetanus. In populations in which the maternal TT-vaccination program is efficiently implemented, responses of the infant to TT and TT-conjugated vaccines such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccaride (PS) TT-conjugate (Hib-TT) vaccine may be depressed.Objectives.To study the influence of transplacentally acquired anti-TT antibodies on responses to TT vaccination and to Hib-TT vaccine.Methods.One hundred ninety-four healthy Filipino infants received three doses of a Hib conjugate (either Hib-TT, PRP-OMP or HbOC) with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) given simultaneously but in a separate syringe at the age of 6, 10 and 14 weeks (primary series). In addition 54 of the study children received a booster dose of Hib-TT at 9 months simultaneously with the measles vaccine.Results.Transplacentally acquired anti-TT did not interfere with the anti-Hib PS antibody (anti-Hib PS) response to any of the conjugates. The transplacentally acquired anti-TT was not significantly associated with the concentration of anti-Hib PS either before or after the booster dose of Hib-TT. High concentrations (≥1 IU/ml) of transplacentally acquired anti-TT inhibited the infants' anti-TT responses.Conclusions.High concentration of transplacentally acquired anti-TT did not depress anti-Hib PS responses to the Hib-TT vaccine. On the other hand the high anti-TT concentrations somewhat depressed the anti-TT responses of the infants. However, the anti-TT concentrations attained were in the protective range in all study children after either the primary series (DTP + Hib-TT) or the booster dose of Hib-TT.

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