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Prelicensure studies of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines (Hib) and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines (DTaP) were evaluated with concurrent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is now recommended. A trial was conducted in which infants received a DTaP and Hib vaccine, separately (+) or combined (/), with either all OPV, all IPV or sequential IPV-OPV for the primary series of vaccinations.In this protocol 567 infants were equally randomized to receive one of the following: Reference Arm A, DTaP + Hib + OPV; Treatment Arm B, DTaP/Hib + OPV; Treatment Arm C, DTaP/Hib + IPV at 2 and 4 months and OPV at 6 months; or Treatment Arm D, DTaP/Hib + IPV. Antibodies against all administered antigens were measured at 7 months of age. Children with an antibody response to Hib (anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (anti-PRP) <0.15 μg/ml had an antibody titer repeated after the toddler booster immunization.A significant diminution in the anti-PRP response was observed at 7 months of age in children given two or three doses of IPV concurrently with DTaP/Hib, compared with the groups given OPV. The geometric mean concentration of anti-PRP, percentage of children with ≥0.15 μg/ml and percentage of children with ≥1.0 μg/ml, respectively, were: A, 4.4, 98%, 81%; B, 3.2, 94%, 78%; C, 1.3, 86%, 58% and D, 1.2, 84%, 53%.In this trial concurrent IPV appeared to interfere with the anti-PRP response to DTaP/Hib vaccine, suggesting that introduction of new vaccines may require evaluation of immune responses to all concurrently administered vaccines.