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Kawasaki disease is an acute multisystem vasculitic syndrome of unknown etiology occurring mostly in infants and children younger than 5 years of age. In developed countries, Kawasaki disease is currently the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in children. However, it is still a mysterious disease. In this article, we reviewed and summarized from the aspects based on infection agents, host immune dysregulation and genetic background intended to establish a feasible infection-immunogenetic pathogenesis for this mysterious disease and also provided the rational strategy to explore optimal treatment of this disease.